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The epipelagic is divided into two components: the oceanic waters and the
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upper photic zone.
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Most of the primary production carried out in the open ocean is performed by
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Net phytoplankton consist mostly of
diatoms and dinoflagellates.
cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
nanoplankton and diatoms.
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Typically the most abundant group in the zooplankton are the.
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Which of these is least likely to be seen in the epipelagic?
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Which of these groups builds a mucus “house?”
Planktonic snails such as pteropods
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Which of the following accounts for about 50% of the primary production in epipelagic waters?
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The following are an adaptation to the planktonic way of life except
decrease in drag.
substitution of heavy ions by light ones.
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The storage of lipids within the body is an adaptation in plankton since lipids
make cells heavier.
increase body density.
contain air pockets so they help in buoyancy.
contain a larger amount of energy.
are less dense than water.
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The neuston consists of animals that
swim against currents.
sink to the bottom portion of the water column.
are top carnivores in the pelagic realm.
spend their entire lives in the plankton.
live at the surface, but remain underwater.
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Counter shading is a form of
shading with bioluminescence.
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The rete mirabile found in some fishes is involved in.
conserving body heat.
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Zooplankton that migrate vertically
hibernate at night and feed during the day.
feed at the surface during the day, and migrate below the photic zone at night.
feed in the photic zone during the day, and migrate to the surface at night.
stay below the photic zone during the day, and feed at the surface at night.
migrate up and down but always stay below the photic zone.
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Most animals in the epipelagic are omnivores. This means that they eat
producers and consumers.
part of the neuston.
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What is the relationship between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bacteria in the epipelagic?
Bacteria feed on the DOM, making it available to other animals in the food chain that feed on bacteria.
Bacteria supply most of the DOM.
Bacteria feed on DOM and thus it is unavailable to other animals.
Bacteria cannot utilize DOM and thus feed on detritus, depleting it through most of the epipelagic.
Bacteria cannot utilize DOM, making it available to animals.
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The most common limiting nutrient in the ocean is
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The fall bloom in temperate waters is caused when
primary production decreases as nutrients increase.
primary production decreases due to light limitation.
primary production decreases as nutrients decrease.
primary production increases as nutrients increase.
primary production increases as the number of zooplankton increases.
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Equatorial upwelling occurs as a result of
temperature changes at the Equator.
the divergence of equatorial surface currents.
the convergence of equatorial surface currents.
winds causing the Ekman transport of surface water offshore.
El NiÃ±o conditions north and south of the Equator.
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The Southern Oscillation can be best described as
relative changes between two pressure systems.
variation in wind speed over the Pacific Ocean.
relationship between sea-surface and high-altitude pressures.
tidal differences between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
wind-speed differences along the Equator.
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The long spines and projections seen in many epipelagic plankton are used for
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Most epipelagic fish have a tail that is
short and wide.
short and narrow.
short and thin.
high and wide.
high and narrow.
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Which of the following adaptations is least likely to be seen in epipelagic fish?
A smooth, scaleless body
Increased white muscle
Grove in body for fins
Eyes flush with body
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The largest source of dissolved organic material (DOM) in the epipelagic is
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The lateral line system in fishes functions in ________________.
sensing vibrations in the water
detecting magnetic lines of force in water
sensing light in aphotic zones
sweeping surrounding water for plankton
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The remote sensing system found in dolphins and some other cetaceans is ___________.
communal mutualistic behavior
underwater acoustic sensitivity