Based on the below paragraph, identify and justify FOUR factors affecting aging workers to retire early. As the HRM practices examined in the present study either address important needs among aging workers or tend to push them away from employment, they appear to be particularly targeted at influencing older workers’ employment decisions. For example, training opportunities may enhance older workers’ self-development and personal growth (Maurer & Rafuse, 2001). Similarly, assigning aging workers to such new roles as mentor or coach for less-tenured employees is a way for employers to provide older workers with challenging work that fits their unique skills and accommodates their needs (Glass, 1994; Mirvis & Hall, 1996). Likewise, flexible work arrangements allow older workers to reconcile their desires to stay employed and achieve work-life balance (Atchley, 1993; Siegrist et al., 2007). In contrast, some organizations encourage aging workers to retire early because they want to reduce personnel costs. Such practices, obviously, may induce voluntary retirement (Hardy & Quadagno, 1995; Shultz et al., 1998; Taylor & Shore, 1995).

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