You saw in Equation (7.1) that the sample mean is an unbiased estimate of the population mean. However, some estimates of population parameters are biased. In such cases, there are two sources of error in estimating the population parameter: the bias and the standard error. To understand these, imagine a rifleman shooting at a bull’s-eye. The rifleman could be aiming wrong and/or his shots could vary wildly from shot to shot. If he is aiming wrong but his shots are very consistent, what can you say about his bias and standard error? Answer the same question if he is correctly aiming at the bull’s-eye but is very inconsistent. Can you say which of these two situations is worse?

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