A detailed outline of your essay that has been created using the outline template. A working references page with a minimum of 4 sources

Part 1: prewriting (outline of essay with minimum of 4 sources) due 10/25/17

Part 2: Final draft essay due 10/31/17

Prewriting and Planning Instructions

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Prewriting and planning are essential to writing an effective essay, so for this week’s assignment, you will complete the prewriting and planning steps of the process for developing the Problem-Solution Essay. Additionally, you will also create and include a working references page, which includes a full APA Style reference for each source that you plan to use in the essay. To complete the prewriting assignment, you will submit one document (or perhaps multiple documents) that include ALL of the following:


  1. A detailed outline of your essay that has been created using the outline template.
  2. A working references page with a minimum of 4 sources.

IMPORTANT: Your submission should resemble the example outline attached.

ENG 205 Problem-Solution Essay

Overview and Requirements

In your academic, personal, and professional lives, being able to effectively solve a problem is an essential skill. Using what you’ve learned in weeks one and two, it is now time to put your newly polished skills to work.

1.) For this essay, you are required to:

  • write about any problem that is of interest to you, and
  • propose a new solution that will work to solve part or all of the problem.

IMPORTANT: You should select a problem that you can successfully define and analyze and propose and defend a solution for in a minimum of 1,200 words. For example, world poverty is too broad of a topic for an essay of this length, but poverty in Cleveland is a manageable topic.

2.) Your essay must do the following (based on the Dewey Sequence):

  • Define the problem
  • Analyze the problem
  • Propose a solution
  • Defend the proposed solution and address any potential objections

3.) Your essay must include the following:

  • An introduction with a hook (review Hooks and Attention Grabbers for examples) and strong thesis statement
  • Developed body paragraphs with strong topic sentences, cited support, and concluding sentences
  • At least 4 unique sources, cited and referenced properly in APA style (no more than 20{b347ee882963fc078925bef44838eb079b614d3dde11dc0714b595823c2ade58} of essay consists of quoted text)
  • A word count of 1,200 words, at a minimum (excludes cover page and references page)

For an example of an “A” student essay, review the Problem-Solution Example Essay.

For specific grading criteria for this assignment, review the Problem-Solution Essay Rubric.

Final Draft Instructions – PART 2 DUE: 10/31/17

By now, you have constructed a draft of your essay, and now it’s time to revise and edit to create your final draft, based on the comments you received from your peer reviewer(s), as well as your own ideas about how to improve your essay.

Consider the questions below:

  • Revise. Read through what you have written and consider the following questions:
    • Are all of your paragraphs unified around a single, coherent point?
    • Do they all have topic sentences?
    • Do you have a good thesis statement?
    • Do your paragraphs make sense in the order that they are currently in, or do they need reorganization?
    • Do you have a solid introduction and conclusion?
    • Can any more details be added?
    • Did you base your essay off of the Dewey Sequence?
    • What else can be done to improve the essay, according to the guidelines of the rubric?
  • Edit. Read through what you have written and consider the following questions:
    • Do your ideas move easily from point to point?
    • Do you need to add transitions between your paragraphs?
    • Can you use description in a more accurate and interesting way?
    • Are there any grammatical errors, spelling errors, or punctuation problems?
    • What else can be done to improve the essay, according to the guidelines of the rubric?
  • Make sure that your essay is correctly formatted in APA Style!

If you have any doubt about how to research and write a paper in APA Style, use the resources available in the Hondros College of Nursing Library:

3-2 Prewriting/Planning for Problem-Solution Essay

Student Name

Hondros College of Nursing

ENG 205

December 1st, 2016


I. Introduction:

A. Hook (1-3 sentences): It can almost be a guarantee that any job seeker will find “displays excellent personal communication skills” as a required skill on a job application. Human beings are communicators, whether it be through verbal and

non-verbal pathways and the message being effective or ineffective. What does that

job application really mean when it indicates an employer requires excellent

personal communication skills?

B. Thesis Statement (1-2 sentences): The breakdown and lack of communication

can result in adverse events that effect patient care. Adapting and learning

strategies to improve communication between nurses can promote safe and

effective patient care outcomes.

II. Body Paragraph 1:

  1. Topic Sentence: The subsequent results of a communication breakdown can

range from minor to major consequences for the patient or patients being cared for by the nurse.

1. Planned Support: general discussion of the problem

B. Concluding Sentence: During nurse handoff, several disruptions between the

communication process can occur.

III. Body Paragraph 2:

A. Topic Sentence: Analysis involves several factors in which communication breakdown can occur.

1. Planned Support: Quote Flicek, discuss role of environment and time

B. Concluding Sentence: When two nurses are able to have their shift report

exchange, the environment in which they choose to participate in their report can

provide distractors, but a nurse’s level of experience can minimize a distraction’s


IV. Body Paragraph 3:

  1. Topic Sentence: Nurse experience ranges on a scale from novice to expert
  2. Concluding Sentence: Professionalism must be maintained during shift-to-shift

regarding skill level and communication techniques.

1. Planned Support: Benner’s Novice to Expert Model, role of

B. Concluding Sentence: Strong communication skills, time management, and

experience are key to reducing the consequences that result from poor


V. Body Paragraph 4:

A. Topic Sentence: Criteria for finding a solution between nurse communication coincides with the factors affecting quality communication.

1. Planned Support: Nelson’s advice on time management, benefits of

minimal distractions, hand-offs, incivility

report to ensure superior patient care.

VI. Body Paragraph 5:

  1. Topic Sentence: Solutions that may resolve breakdown in nurse communication include close monitoring of appropriate nurse-to-patient ratios, which is a

controversy between quality versus quantity of patient load, and SBAR.

1. Planned Support: SBAR, quality v. quantity, Ohio Senate Bill 234

B. Concluding Sentence: When appropriately implemented, transfer-related

problems can be reduced.

VII. Body Paragraph 6:

A. Transitional Paragraph: Evaluation of these propose solutions shows that they have significant advantages, including the capability of the nurses to choose a non-distracting environment and method of communication transmission, thus completing an effective report exchange. Disadvantages may occur when a non-distracting or quiet environment is unavailable or one is unfamiliar or new to a different transmission of report, but both solutions are the ability to be altered by the nurses if indicated.

VIII. Body Paragraph 7:

A. Topic Sentence: Strategies to implement this solution are simple.

1. Planned Support: Scovell, taped handover, written handover, and real-time face-to-face handover

B. Concluding Sentence: Overall, he best method of nurse to nurse report is real time

oral transmission, which promotes unity and collaboration of care between the

nurses (Scovell, 2008).

IX. Conclusion


Dingley, C., Daugherty, K., Derieg, M., & Persing, R. (2008, August). Improving patient safety

through provider communication strategy enhancements. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21249923

Ebright, PR, Urden L., Patterson E, et al. (2004). Themes surrounding novice nurse near-

miss and adverse-event situations. Journal of Nursing Administration. 34:531–538

Important time management tips for nurses – Elsevier Nursing Suite. (2016, February 09).

Retrieved from http://www.confidenceconnected.com/blog/2016/02/09/important-time-management-tips-for-nurses/

Kerr, MP (2002). A qualitative study of shift handover practice and function from a socio-

technical perspective. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 37, 2, 125-134

Randmaa, M., Mårtensson, G., Swenne, CL., Engström, M. (21 January 2014). SBAR

improves communication and safety climate and decreases incident reports due to communication errors in an anesthetic clinic: a prospective intervention study. BMJ Open. Retrieved from http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/4/1/e004268.full

Root causes of sentinel events, all categories. (2006) Retrieved from



Senate Bill 324 – Summary: The Ohio Legislature. (2016, May 4). Retrieved from


Sheldon, L., & Hilaire, D. (2015, April 27). Development of communication skills in

healthcare: Perspectives of new graduates of undergraduate nursing education.

Journal of Nursing Education in Practice, 5(7). Retrieved from www.sciedu.ca/jnep.

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